什么是可持续的建筑?“绿色”建筑的未来解释
可持续建筑是在全球新绿色建筑和装修项目的前沿和中心。|

什么是可持续的建筑?“绿色”建筑的未来解释

Just how important is sustainable architecture? Here's why it matters, why you should care, and some key examples of what green construction can look like.

Shelter is one of the most basic human concepts. We have been building permanent dwellings for around 10,000 years, since humanity first transitioned from living off the land to raising crops. That’s also around five percent of the time that humans (homo sapiens) have existed at all.

今天,我们中的许多人每天都参观各种不同的建筑,属性和结构,包括我们的家园和工作场所。办公室,学校,银行,餐馆,超市和图书馆的一件事都是共同的共同点是它们对环境的影响。

They also represent important areas for intervention and improvement; both in terms of environmental impact and our overall well being. We can make these spaces and their construction more green with sustainable architecture.

什么是可持续的建筑?

尝试限制建筑施工和运作的负面环境影响的任何架构可以可以说可谓可持续。

This may incorporate the use of recycled, recyclable, or environmentally friendly materials, or the use of renewable energy as part of the structure’s development, construction, and ongoing use.

有各种各样的地区、国家和international certifications of sustainability, including the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program — developed by the U.S. Green Building Council — as well as the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM), Energy Star, and Australia’s Green Star, to name just a few.

总体而言,绿色认证的目标是有效评估建筑和建设的负面影响,同时提供优化该行业的工具,支持和资源。

Many sustainable rating and certification systems bring together a variety of existing sustainable practices and support the development of new, innovative, integrated solutions to ongoing issues.

Each certification scheme has slightly different priorities and criteria, and proponents of certification maintain that the standards they uphold help raise the bar for sustainable construction overall.

根据the 2017 National Green Building Adoption Index, the overall number of buildings with LEED or Energy Star certification is increasing. In 2005, under 5 percent of all businesses were certified, but by the end of 2017 that had risen to almost 40 percent.

什么是可持续的建筑?“绿色”建筑的未来解释
可持续建筑是在全球新绿色建筑和装修项目的前沿和中心。|Vladimir Vladimirov/iStock
AE

Why is sustainable architecture important?

可持续建筑是在全球新绿色建筑和装修项目的前沿和中心。It has the potential to significantly benefit both the humans who occupy urban spaces and the surrounding environment.

根据联合国环境计划(环境规划署),建筑和建筑业目前负责38%的能源相关二氧化碳排放。这超过了2018年贡献的30%的燃煤发电。

截至2021年1月,我们还有九年来实现UN’s Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs), designed to avoid the most catastrophic effects of global warming (think: rising seas, depleted fish populations, drought, and flooding).

UNEP说,如果该行业正在追踪其净零的目标 - 通过移除或消除的排放平衡 - 到2050年,建筑业的整个价值链(包括设计,建筑本身和运营)必须将其努力增加至少500%,这是一个巨大的事业。

什么是可持续的建筑?“绿色”建筑的未来解释
什么是可持续建筑材料?|Federico rostagno / iStock

什么是可持续建筑材料?

Building materials are just one of the key areas that require improvement. Modern green swaps might include high-tech sustainable concrete, such as the recyclable biocement produced by North Carolina’sBiomason., or recycled versions of traditional materials.

一些公司,如哥伦比亚波哥大的啄木鸟,正在结合回收的废物,如塑料和咖啡壳创造新的可持续建筑材料。荷兰人 ”Growing Pavillion“建筑物几乎完全使用菌丝体(蘑菇根结构),而英国公司Chip[s] Boardproduces building materials out of potato waste.

More surprisingly,wood— one of the oldest building materials in existence — could be a key part of modern sustainable construction. Buildings that incorporate wood produce fewer overall emissions throughout their lifecycle and help to store carbon within city environments.

什么是可持续的建筑?“绿色”建筑的未来解释
Trading concrete for sustainable alternatives can reduce the negative impact of the construction sector. | Alvarez/iStock

What’s the problem with concrete?

与上述可持续选择相比,许多传统的工业后建筑材料有害。这些包括明显(石棉)以及不太明显,如传统混凝土。创造混凝土涉及水泥与水和聚集体的混合,如沙子,碎石或砾石。

尽管它是水后行星上最广泛使用的物质,但它也是最具破坏性的。大约9000万吨混凝土是在美国生产的每年(参考,即近250次重量of the Empire State Building).

Concrete is responsible for nearly 10 percent of the entire world’s industrial water use, resulting in严重的干旱. If the cement industry were a nation, it would be the third largest carbon dioxide emitter after China and the U.S. with 2.8 billion tons per year (though it’s worth noting that China uses at least 50 percent of the world’s concrete).

When used in cities, it exacerbates inner-city heating and is one of the key contributors toUrban Heat Island Effect. This in turn compounds the effects of global warming, causing even more intense heat waves in built-up areas, and worsening cumulative warming significantly.

由于其巨大的足迹,可持续替代品的交易混凝土 - 或回收现有材料和结构 - 将显着降低建筑业的负面影响。

什么是可持续的建筑?“绿色”建筑的未来解释
Sustainable architecture represents a key opportunity to revolutionize zero carbon building. | Hilda Weges/iStock

可持续建筑的三个更多好处

Sustainable architecture represents a key opportunity to revolutionize zero carbon building by standardizing highly energy efficient structures, renewable energy, and even carbon offsetting, where required. But it also supports housing, employment, and various other benefits.

Energy efficiency

Sustainable design and construction will typically include some combination of renewable energy sources, energy-efficient lighting and heating, good use of natural light, waste reduction, water efficiency, and effective insulation.

建筑和设计通常还包括完整的生命周期评估,以确保建筑物尽可能长时间保留最佳可持续性,而不仅仅是在施工中。

绿色经济增长

In addition to its potential as a mitigator of climate change, the industry also represents an opportunity to support green economic growth through employment opportunities, as well as creating more sustainable and high-quality housing. Both of which are in high demand and low supply, particularly in美国. and英国.

建筑物和建筑业目前在美国国内生产的高达10%占GDP的最高可达15%。多于金融,运输,公用事业和公共行政。

建筑业还提供住房,流动性,水和卫生基础设施。根据UNEP, it also “represents the physical context for social interactions as well as economic development at the micro-level.”

城市供热

创新的建筑设计和可持续建设项目可以积极降低城市供热(增加能源成本,污染和热疾病),甚至通过风和太阳能技术生产额外的可再生能源。

通过强调建筑物内部和周围地区的福祉,以人为本的设计也可以帮助改善公共卫生。例如,通过最大化渗透到内部的日光量。

建筑的未来:世界各地的可持续建筑

过去二十年来,已经完成了无数建设项目和几个高调的建筑和装修,可持续的功能,如可再生能源生成,城市绿化,堆肥厕所和雨水捕获。

CopenHill

丹麦的哥本希尔将一个“城市山脉”结合了一个超现代废物到能量厂。建筑师设计了上面的娱乐区,享受滑雪,滑雪板,跑步,徒步旅行等体育场所,甚至攀登 - 哥本希尔均在距离地面85米处,距离世界上最高的攀岩墙有85米。

The plant below produces “environmentally friendly energy” by burning waste and capturing the emissions, producing enough electricity to completely power 30,000 households and an additional 72,000 central heating systems in the city of Copenhagen.

Bahrain World Trade Center

The Bahrain World Trade Center features two 50-story commercial office towers shaped much like the sails of Dhow, two-masted Arab sailing vessels. This shape helps to funnel wind into three turbines positioned on sky bridges between the towers, supplying the trade center with 11 to 15 percent of its required energy. Reflective pools below help keep the towers cool through evaporation, despite the arid desert climate.

像素建设

Melbourne’s Pixel Building Project boasts a wide array of sustainable design features and became Australia’s first carbon-neutral office block on opening in 2010.

为了减少体现的碳,该项目采用低碳混凝土和再生建筑材料。它还通过现场风力涡轮机和“绿色屋顶”产生所有自己的电力和水来处理灰水。

布尔特中心

Seattle’s Bullitt Center, known as “the greenest commercial building in the world,” is also certified as aLiving Building, meaning it is a resilient, self-sufficient structure that can provide energy security for decades.

The Bullitt Center produces nearly 30 percent more energy than it requires via solar panels, making it one of the largest net-positive energy buildings worldwide. Other features include a six-story onsite composting toilet system and rainwater-to-potable water processing.

It officially opened on Earth Day 2013 and has an unprecedented 250-year lifespan (for reference, commercial buildings’ finances typically assume a 40-year lifespan). As part of its construction, the project successfully avoided any materials containingRed List化学品。

One Central Park

Sydney, Australia’s One Central Park features two residential towers positioned at the top of a five-story shopping centre. It requires 25 percent less energy than a typical building of the same size and uses enormous, cantilevered mirrors to light the lower levels.

Perhaps most strikingly, it features a 1,000 square-meter green wall — designed by botanist Patrick Blanc, the self-proclaimed inventor of the垂直花园— incorporating 250 different species of Australian flowers and plants, which help regulate the building’s temperature.

为什么可持续的建筑对你很重要

可持续设计不仅限于上述新建筑,并使现有结构更节能是达到该部门的必要部分 - 以及世界排放目标。新住房仅为每年的总房库存增加一个百分点,其中只有一小部分是架构师设计的。

“What we have now is the majority of housing stock we will have in 2050 when we have legal national targets to reduce fossil fuel carbon emissions to near zero,”Asif Din, an ecological architect and sustainability director at the firm Perkins & Will, told LIVEKINDLY.

There are currently more than 648,114 empty residential and commercial buildings in the UK and 17 million vacant homes in the U.S. Up to90 percent美国人也生活在绝缘的房屋内,而1900多万英国房屋迫切需要额外的绝缘。

根据DIN,施工阶段的额外费用可以节省大量的能量。在利用空建筑物的同时,可以提出建筑业环境影响和慢性的解决方案affordable housing shortagesfaced by the UK and many parts of the U.S.

甚至可以在可能的新项目中回收和重复使用来自拆除建筑物的材料,如混凝土,木材,玻璃和金属。但是,需要对材料,建设和可持续性的行业态度的变化。

“We have to think of buildings as material depots,”said Dutch architect Thomas Rau, speaking to守护者.“Waste is simply material without an identity.”